Springs(弹簧)

Functions of springs(弹簧的用途)


Spring functions include shock absorption,reposition, clamping, dynamometry and accumulation of energy. 

弹簧的作用主要是减振、复位、夹紧、测力和储能等。

Types of springs(弹簧的种类)

There are several types of springs. Commonly used springs are helical spring, turbination spring, leaf and blade springs (see Fig.7-41). The helical spring is widely used. There are compression,extension, and torsion springs, employed according to load. In this chapter we will focus on the names and drawing method of cylindrical helical compression spring. 

弹簧的种类很多,常用的有:螺旋弹簧、涡卷弹簧、板弹簧和片弹簧等,如图7-41所示,其中螺旋弹簧应用较为广泛。根据受力情况,螺旋弹簧又分为压缩弹簧、拉伸弹簧和扭转弹簧。本节主要介绍圆柱螺旋压缩弹簧的各部分名称及画法。

Names and parameters of cylindrical helical compression spring(GB/T 2089—2009)

圆柱螺旋压缩弹簧各部分的名称及尺寸关系

Names of helical compression spring are shown in Fig. 7-42.

(1) Wire diameter of spring d   The diameter of wire.

(2) External diameter D2   The biggest diameterof spring.             

(3) Internal diameter D1   The smallestdiameter of spring.  D1 = D2-2d.         

(4) Effective diameter D    The average diameter of spring which is choose according to the standard.        

    D = (D1+D2)/ 2 = D1+d = D2-d.      

(5) Pitch t   The axial distance of the corresponding points on the adjacent coils except the supporting coils at the ends.

(6) Number of supporting coils n2    Number of coils at the end of the spring,which are put together and assured in order to provide equal load and to holdother components. There are three types of end coils: 1.5, 2, and 2.5.

(7) Number of active coils n   Number of coils engaging in elastic deformation, You should choose according to the standard.

(8) Number of total coils n1    The sum of end and active coils, n1= n2+ n.

(9) Free height H0   Height of the spring, when unloaded:

    n2 =2.5,     H0 = nt+2d;

    n2 =2,       H0 = nt+1.5d;

    n2 =1.5,    H0= nt+d;

(10) Stretched length l    Spring length of the wire to start :

螺旋压缩弹簧各部分的名称如图7-42所示。

(1)簧丝直径d    弹簧的钢丝直径。

(2)弹簧外径D2    弹簧的最大直径。

(3)弹簧内径D1    弹簧的最小直径。D1= D2-2d 。

(4)弹簧中径D    弹簧的平均直径,按标准选用。

     D= (D1+D2) /2=D1+d= D2-d。

(5)节距t   除两端支承圈外,弹簧上相邻两圈对应两点之间的轴向距离。

(6)支承圈数n2   为使弹簧各圈受力均匀,把两端弹簧并紧磨平,工作时起支承作用的圈数。支承圈有1.5、2和2.5圈三种。

(7)有效圈数n   在工作时,弹簧中起弹性变形作用的圈数,按标准选用。

(8)总圈数n1   支承圈数和有效圈数之和,n1= n2+ n 。

(9)自由高度H0     弹簧不受外力作用下的高度:

     n2 =2.5,    H0 = nt+2d

     n2 =2,      H0 = nt+1.5d

     n2 =1.5,    H0 = nt  +d

(10)弹簧丝展开长度l   弹簧钢丝的展开长度:  

Conventional representation of cylindrical helical compression springs 

圆柱螺旋压缩弹簧的规定画法

1) Represent the helical line of a helical spring with a straight line. See Fig. 7-43.

2) No matter the helical spring is on the left or on the right position, it can be represented on the right. No matter the left helical spring is represented as left or right, it is necessary to mark it as “LH”(left-hand).

3) If both ends of the helical compression spring need to be put together and to be grounded (irrespective of the number of supporting coils it may have), it should be represented as shown in Fig.7-39, and be specified in engineering requirements.

4) If the helical spring has more than four active coils,the center division can be omitted, and therefore the length of the view can be shortened accordingly (seeFig. 7-43). 

1)螺旋弹簧各圈的螺旋线画成直线,如图7-43所示。

2)螺旋弹簧不论左旋或右旋,均可画成右旋,但左旋弹簧不论画成左旋或右旋,一律要注出“LH”(左旋)。

3)螺旋压缩弹簧如果要求两端并紧磨平时(不论支承圈多少和末端贴紧情况如何),均可按图7-39所示的形式绘制,而在技术要求中另加说明。

4)有效圈数在四圈以上的螺旋弹簧,中间部分可以省略。中间部分省略后,允许适当缩短图形的长度,如图7-43所示。

Steps for drawing cylindrical helical compression springs

圆柱螺旋压缩弹簧的作图步骤

Given wire diameter d =5mm, effective diameter D = 40mm, pitch t =10mm, number of active coils n =10, and number of supporting coils n2 = 2.5, steps to draw the cylindrical compression spring on the right are shown in Fig. 7-44. The cylindrical helical compression spring drawing is shown in Fig. 7-45.

已知簧丝直径d=5mm,中径D=40mm,节距t=10mm,有效圈数 n=10,支承圈数n2 =2.5,右旋圆柱压缩弹簧,其画图步骤如图7-44所示。圆柱螺旋压缩弹簧的零件图如图7-45所示。

 One needs to take into account the following aspects when drawing:

1) Spring parameters should be marked in the view or be included and explained in technical requirements.

2) If a note for the spring load and height ratio is required, it must be illustrated. The mechanical property curve of the helical compression spring is a straight line, in which Fn represents the maximum working load, Fs represents the experimental load, and fn represents the greatest work of deformation, fs represents the experimental load deformation.

画图时应注意以下几点:

1)弹簧的参数应直接注在图形上,如有困难,可在技术要求中说明。

2)当需要说明弹簧的负荷与高度之间的变化关系时,必须用图解法表示。螺旋压缩弹簧的力学性能曲线为直线。其中,Fn为最大工作载荷;Fs为实验负荷。fn为最大工作变形量;fs为实验负荷下变形量。

Standard representation of helical compression springsin an assembly

螺旋压缩弹簧在装配图中的规定画法

1) The spring's inner structure does not need to be represented. The visible section should be represented from contours or from the center line of the wire’s cross section. See Fig.7-46a.

2) In the sectional view, when the wire diameter is equal to or less than 2mm,the cross section can be drawn black. Contour lines for each circle are omitted. See Fig.7-46b.       

3) If the spring's wire diameter is equal to or less than 1mm, a drawing can be made. See Fig.7-46c.

1)被弹簧挡住的结构一般不画出,可见部分应从弹簧的外轮廓线或从弹簧钢丝断面的中心线画起,如图7-46a所示。

2)在剖视图中,弹簧钢丝直径在图形上等于或小于2mm时,其断面可以涂黑,且不画各圈的轮廓线,如图7-46b所示。

3)弹簧钢丝直径在图形上等于或小于1mm时,允许用示意图画法,如图7-46c所示。